concentration germanium high

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Mechanisms of optical losses in fibres with a high ...

The mechanisms of optical losses determining the scattering of light in single-mode fibres with a high germanium-dioxide content in a core are investigated. The coefficients of the Rayleigh scattering in fibres with a high level of doping (a molar concentration of GeO 2 of up to 30 %) are measured for the first time. The investigations of the ...

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Mineralogical Distribution of Germanium, Gallium and ...

Germanium, gallium and indium are in high demand due to their growing usage in high-tech and green-tech applications. However, the mineralogy and the mechanisms of concentration of these critical elements in different types of hydrothermal ore deposits remain poorly constrained. We investigated the mineralogical distribution of Ge, Ga and In at the Mt Carlton high-sulfidation epithermal ...

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1. Carrier Concentration - University of California, Berkeley

1. Carrier Concentration a) Intrinsic Semiconductors - Pure single-crystal material For an intrinsic semiconductor, the concentration of electrons in the conduction band is equal to the concentration of holes in the valence band. We may denote, n i: intrinsic electron concentration p i: intrinsic hole concentration However, n i = p i Simply, n

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Umicore - High Purity Germanium Crystals

High Purity Germanium Crystals. The Czochralski crystal-growth method is mainly used for silicon-based electronics and solar energy applications. Umicore has further refined this method in order to make it work for germanium. Umicore created the world's purest germanium crystal. With a purity of 99.99999999999% it is used to detect and ...

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Is germanium a metal? - Quora

Germanium behaves both as a metal and a non-metal and is useful as a semiconductor and is classified metalloid. Sure looks metallic It is very reactive and not found easily in nature > Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic numb...

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Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can't

Unfortunately, this technique does not work as well in germanium as it does in silicon; the material can't withstand the high concentration of electron-donating dopants that would be needed to ...

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Separation and determination of inorganic germanium and β ...

The inorganic germanium and Ge-132 stock solutions (1 mg ml −1, expressed as germanium) were prepared separately by dissolving appropriate amounts of GeO 2 (high purity, Beijing Chemical Factory, China) and Ge-132 (purity 99.4%, obtained from Guangzhou Institute of Military Medicine, China) in hot water. Working solutions were prepared daily ...

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High Purity Germanium: From Gamma-Ray Detection to Dark ...

High purity germanium remains the material of choice for the detection of photons in the range of MeV or higher, down to the hard X-ray range. Since the operation of HPGe-based detectors is possible only at or below the liquid nitrogen temperature, their advantage is mainly the resolution, which matches the Fano factor if appropriate cooled electronic readout is used.

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US8901537B2 - Transistors with high concentration of boron ...

As will further be appreciated in light of this disclosure, the combination of high germanium concentration (e.g., in excess of 50 atomic % and up to pure germanium) and high boron concentration (e.g., in excess of 1E20 cm −3), such as discussed with respect to embodiments shown in FIGS. 3F and 3G, can be used to realize significantly higher ...

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Miracle Cure Organic Germanium by Dr Asai

Miracle Cure Organic Germanium . ... When attacked by germs and viruses, wisteria forms a knob (mentioned in the first list as containing a high concentration of germanium) in self-defense. This is a strong indication that the plant is using germanium to fight off the invading viruses. Further evidence that germanium serves to combat viruses in ...

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Germanium: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and ...

Overview Information Germanium is a chemical element. People use it as medicine. Despite serious safety concerns, germanium is used for heart and blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease; for eye conditions, including glaucoma and cataracts; and for liver conditions, including hepatitis and cirrhosis. Some people use germanium for ...

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Zone melting - Wikipedia

Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.The molten region melts impure solid at its forward edge and leaves a wake of purer material solidified behind it as it moves through the ingot.

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Germanium (Ge) - Chemical properties, Health and ...

Germanium. Pure germanium is a hard, lustrous, gray-white, brittle metalloid. It has a diamondlike crystalline structure and it is similar in chemical and physical properties to silicon.Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid.

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Temperature Dependence of Semiconductor Conductivity

carrier concentration. Referring to Equation 4, this is the region where D N T N D, A N T nN A, and i T N D A. At high temperatures, the thermally generated intrinsic carriers outnumber the dopants (n i > N D N A). In this intrinsic region, carrier concentration increases with temperature as shown in Equation 3 because ni has become the ...

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Band structure and carrier concentration of Germanium (Ge)

The temperature dependence of the intrinsic carrier concentration n i. Fermi level versus temperature for different concentrations of shallow donors and acceptors. Dashed line shows Fermi level dependence versus temperature for intrinsic Ge.

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Germanium (Ge) Semiconductors

Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and find applications in optical devices such as highly sensitive infrared detectors and infrared spectroscopes. Germanium has a high refractive index and germanium oxides have diffraction properties that enable its use as a component in microscope objective and wide-angle lenses.

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Example Calculate the intrinsic carrier density in ...

Example 2.4b Calculate the intrinsic carrier density in germanium, silicon and gallium arsenide at 300, 400, 500 and 600 K. Solution The intrinsic carrier density in silicon at 300 K equals:

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Germanium | Ge - PubChem

Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. The development of the germanium transistor opened the door to ...

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germanium | Properties, Uses, & Facts | Britannica.com

The high index of refraction of germanium dioxide renders it valuable as a component of glasses used in optical devices, such as wide-angle lenses for cameras and microscope objectives. The toxicology of germanium and its compounds is poorly defined.

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Study and Evaluation of parameters for High Finish of ...

better finish. Germanium has desirable properties such as light weight, good thermal conductivity, high strength,excellent infrared refractive index and has civilian applications. The polishing of the Germanium for high finish applications is challenging. Conventional polishing is the most refined finishing processes

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Ultralow Contact Resistivity for a Metal/p-Type Silicon ...

Ultralow Contact Resistivity for a Metal/p-Type Silicon Interface by High-Concentration Germanium and Boron Doping Combined with Low-Temperature Annealing Atsushi Murakoshi 1, Masao Iwase2, Hiromi Niiyama, Mitsuo Koike3, and Kyoichi Suguro1

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Germanium - YouTube

 · Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry #germanium. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry #germanium. Skip navigation Sign in. Search. Loading...

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Solved: Calculate The Intrinsic Carrier Concentration In G ...

Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration in gallium arsenide and germanium at T = 300 K. (Ans. GaAs, n_i = 1.80 times 10^6 cm^-3; Ge, n_i = 2.40 times 10^13 cm^-3)

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Doped Semiconductors

Assume Si doping with a concentration of . 16N D = 10 cm-3. Hole concentration is lower by about 6 orders of magnitude compared to the intrinsic carrier concentration. The area under the curve for the electron concentration in the conduction band (negative charges) must be equal the area of the hole concentration in the valence band plus the area

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Ultralow Contact Resistivity for a Metal/p-Type Silicon ...

Ultralow Contact Resistivity for a Metal/p-Type Silicon Interface by High-Concentration Germanium and Boron Doping Combined with Low-Temperature Annealing Atsushi Murakoshi 1, Masao Iwase2, Hiromi Niiyama, Mitsuo Koike3, and Kyoichi Suguro1

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Extraction of gallium and germanium from zinc refinery ...

The decreased Ge leaching can be attributed to the solubility decrease of GeO 2 with increasing the sulfuric acid concentration . With a high sulfuric acid concentration, the dissolved germanium precipitates as an H 4 GeO 4 gel because of the supersaturation. Download high-res image (109KB) Download full-size image; Fig. 6.

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Germanium | Ge - PubChem

Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. The development of the germanium transistor opened the door to ...

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Element Concentrations in Soils and Other Surfici ...

ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN SOILS AND OTHER SURFICIAL MATERIALS OF THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES By HANSFORD T. SHACKLETTE and JOSEPHINE G. BOERNGEN ABSTRACT Samples of soils or other regoliths, taken at a depth of approxi- mately 20 cm from locations about 80 km apart throughout the conter-

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Density of charge carriers in semiconductors Today

carriers of one type we cause the carrier concentration of the other type to decline. Leading to an overall decline in the total number of charge carriers. Intrinsic Semiconductors . If the crystal is pure such that there is a negligible

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High Purity Germanium, a Review on Principle Theories and ...

acid and then an oxidization step of the precipitates back into GeO 2.In pyrometallurgical way, mostly roasting or fuming process takes place, through which the GeO 2 is volatized and collected in the fumes. In this process, a 10-factor increase in Germanium concentration can be obtained [4] [9] [18] .

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